There were a lot of really good papers and sessions on early modern Spanish history and literature at the recent Sixteenth Century Studies Conference in Montreal, but one that especially stood out was Sherry Velasco, “Same-Sex Unions in Early Modern Spain.” It was a precis of her forthcoming book with Vanderbilt, Lesbians in Early Modern Spain. Velasco examines lesbians in literature, but also in the archives of the inquisition and other courts. In her paper, she emphasized the importance of rumor, gossip, and spying – especially aural spying – in the testimony against women accused of being homosexual. There was some great stuff about how people understood sex, and how it could be possible between two women, and also on the social dynamics of some of these lesbian couples. She concluded by stating that lesbians were not hidden, not tolerated, but not insignificant in early modern Spain.